10 Biggest Impact Craters on Earth

1. Vredefort Crater

Vredefort Dome, Free State, South Africa. Image #STS51I-33-56AA. Credit: Júlio Reis

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 2 billion years ago

Location: Free State, South Africa

Specs: Also known as the Vredefort Dome, the Vredefort crater has an estimated radius of 118 miles (190 kilometers), making it the world’s largest known impact structure. This crater was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.


2. Sudbury Basin

The Sudbury and Wanapitei impact craters in Ontario, Canada. Sudbury is the large, elliptical structure (60 x 30 km), Wanapitei is the lake filled crater at upper right. It’s diameter is 8km, it’s age 37 million yeras. Created with NASA WorldWind by Vesta using Landsat 7 (Visible Color) satellite image.

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 1.8 billion years ago

Location: Ontario, Canada

Specs: The Sudbury Basin is considered one of largest impact structures on Earth, with an estimated diameter of 81 miles (130 kilometers). Dating back 1.8 billion years, it is also one of the oldest known impact structures in the world.


3. Acraman Crater

Lake Acraman (impact crater) in South Australia. Oblique Landsat image drapped over digital elevation model, looking east towards Flinders Ranges, 10x vertical exaggeration. Credit: Screen capture from NASA World Wind

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 580 million years ago

Location: South Australia, Australia

Specs: Located in what is now Lake Acraman, this impact structure has an estimated diameter of 56 miles (90 kilometers).


4. Woodleigh Crater

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 364 million years ago

Location: Western Australia, Australia

Specs: This crater is not exposed at the surface and has led to many discrepancies regarding its actual size. Reports on its diameter vary from 25 to 75 miles (40 to 120 kilometers).


5. Manicouagan Crater

View from orbit. Image courtesy NASA

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 215 million years ago

Location: Quebec, Canada

Specs: This impact crater formed what is now Lake Manicouagan. Even with erosion, it’s considered one of the largest and best-preserved craters on Earth, with an estimated diameter of 62 miles (100 kilometers).


6. Morokweng Crater

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 145 million years ago

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Location: North West, South Africa

Specs: Located near the Kalahari Desert in South Africa, this crater contained the fossilized remains of the meteorite that created it.


7. Kara Crater

Image of the Kara meteor structure in the Yugorsky Peninsula, Nenetsia, Russia. Credit: NASA

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 70.3 million years ago

Location: Nenetsia, Russia

Specs: Now greatly eroded, the Kara crater is a non-exposed impact structure in Russia. Some have claimed that the impact structure actually consists of two adjacent craters: the Kara and the Ust-Kara crater.


8. Chicxulub Crater

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 65 million years ago

Location: Yucatán, Mexico

Specs: Located on the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, many scientists believe that the meteorite that left this crater caused or contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Estimates of its actual diameter range from 106 to a whooping 186 miles (170 to 300 kilometers), which if proved right could mean it’s the biggest.


9. Popigai Crater

Credit: NASA

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 35.7 million years ago

Location: Siberia, Russia

Specs: Russian scientists claim that this crater site contains trillions of carats of diamonds, making it one of the largest diamond deposits in the world. These diamonds have been referred to as “impact diamonds.”


10. Chesapeake Bay Crater

Boundaries of the crater

Asteroid impact date: Estimated 35 million years ago

Location: Virginia, United States

Specs: Discovered in the early 1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Crater is located approximately 125 miles (201 kilometers) from Washington, D.C. Some estimates suggest this crater is 53 miles (85 kilometers) wide.