The crystal skulls are human skull hardstone carvings made of clear or milky white quartz, claimed by their alleged finders to be pre-Colombian Mesoamerican artifacts ; however, these claims were refuted for all the specimens available for scientific studies.
The type of crystal was determined by examining chlorite inclusions. It is found only in Madagascar and Brazil, and therefore in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica unrecognizable or unknown.The study concluded that the skulls were made in Germany in the 19th century, most likely at workshops in the city of Idar-Oberstein, renowned in the late 19th century for crafting objects made of imported Brazilian quartz.
There are no uncommon or terribly mysterious crystal skulls. In Brazil, China, and Germany, thousands are produced each year. But a handful of these rather macabre objects have fuelled intense interest and controversy for more than a century among archeologists, scientists, spiritualists, and museum officials.
In private and public collections, there may be a dozen of these rare crystal skulls. Some are crystal-clear, others are quartz smoky or colored. Some of them are of real human size and very fine detail, while others are smaller and less refined. Everyone is supposed to come from Mexico and Central America.
Moreover, recent analyzes of the British Museum and the Smithsonian Institution’s electron microscope of skulls revealed markings that could only have been made using modern carving tools. Both museums estimate that their skulls date from the mid to late 1800s, a time when there was high public interest in ancient cultures and museums were eager to display pieces.