Libethenite, Zapatalite Locality: Miguel Vacas Mine, Conceição, Vila Viçosa, Évora District, Portugal Photo Copyright © Christian Rewitzer

Chemical Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Locality:   Lubietova (German Livethen), Czechoslovakia.
Name Origin: Named after its locality.

Libethenite is a rare copper phosphate hydroxide mineral. It forms striking, dark green orthorhombic crystals. It was discovered in 1823 in Ľubietová, Slovakia and is named after the German name of that locality (Libethen).


Discovery date : 1823
Country of Origin : SLOVAQUIE

Optical properties

Optical and misc. Properties : Translucent to subtranslucent
Refractive Index : from 1,70 to 1,78
Axial angle 2V : ~90°

Physical Properties

Cleavage: {100} Indistinct, {010} Indistinct
Color:     Green, Dark green, Blackish green, Light olive green, Dark olive green.
Density: 3.6 – 4, Average = 3.8
Diaphaneity: Translucent to subtranslucent
Fracture: Brittle – Generally displayed by glasses and most non-metallic minerals.
Hardness: 4 – Fluorite
Luminescence: Non-fluorescent.
Luster: Vitreous – Greasy
Streak: light green


Libethenite Podlipa deposit, Ľubietová, Banská Bystrica Co., Banská Bystrica Region, Slovakia (Type Locality) Specimen weight:25 gr. Crystal size:Up to 1.5 mm Overall size: 47mm x 38 mm x 23 mm © minservice
Libethenite Miguel Vacas Mine, Viçosa, Portugal Specimen weight:102 gr. Crystal size:3 mm Overall size: 50mm x 45 mm x 40 mm © minservice
Libethenite Chrysocolla, Los Azules mine, Atacama Region, Chile Specimen weight:21 gr. Crystal size:2 mm Overall size: 40mm x 26 mm x 32 mm © minservice
Miguel Vacas Mine, Pardais, Vila Viçosa, Évora District, Portugal © Luigi Mattei